1305 - William Wallace, who led Scottish resistance to England, is captured by the English near Glasgow and transported to London for trial and execution.
1861 - American Civil War: In order to help pay for the war effort, the United States government issues the first income tax as part of the Revenue Act of 1861 (3% of all incomes over US $800; rescinded in 1872).
1963 - United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union sign a nuclear test ban treaty.
1993 - Popular trading card game Magic: the Gathering is released. First trading card game to date.
1850 - Guy de Maupassant, French author (d. 1893)
1930 - Neil Armstrong, astronaut
1946 - Loni Anderson, American actress
1962 - Patrick Ewing, American basketball player
1895 - Friedrich Engels, German philosopher (b. 1820)
1955 - Carmen Miranda, Portuguese actress and singer (b. 1909)
1962 - Marilyn Monroe, American actress (b. 1926)
2000 - Sir Alec Guinness, British actor (b. 1914)
But the most noteworthy event happened the next day, an event whose anniversary newspapers often report upon one day in advance, on my birthday:
1945 - World War II: the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima.